A: There are generally 4 methods to collect health workforce data:
1. Licensure Process. Data are collected as part of the licensure process when health professionals apply for their initial license and when they renew, capturing 100% of the workforce. This is one of the most efficient and cost-effective methods to collect data. Some questions on the licensure forms may be mandatory, while others are optional. The organizational structure of the licensing boards will present different opportunities and barriers to data collection. Examples: North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia
2. Surveys. Data are collected through surveys, either in conjunction with the licensure process or as a separate effort. This method requires more staff time and money. Response rates may vary, but this is a good option if health workforce questions cannot be included directly on the licensure forms. Examples: New York, Wisconsin
3. Continuous Monitoring. Data collection begins with a list of all licensees in one or more professions. From there, states track individuals through surveys, news clipping services, and other methods to determine practice status, practice setting, and other characteristics. This method can be costly, but it may provide more up-to-date information. Examples: Iowa, Nebraska
4. Secondary Data Sources. Secondary data sources can also be used to enumerate the workforce in a specific state. These data sources include the National Provider Identification (NPI) file, the American Medical Association (AMA) Physician Masterfile, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, as well as state professional associations. Additionally, all-payer claims databases can be used to enumerate the health workforce in select states, but there are significant limitations.